Recordings and Resources

On this page you will find the recordings of the inaugural PC Anti-Racism Summer Series. Also, you will find discussion questions and resources related to the presentation. Check back here weekly for the latest from the PC Anti-Racism Summer Series!

Student Activism & Anti-Racism

Policing, Race, and Potential for Change

Self Reflection & Anti-Racism: A Conversation for White Folks

What is Systemic Racism and Why does it Matter?

Anti-Racism as a Necessary Christian Virtue

The Psychology of Implicit Bias

Q&A from Webinar

Do schools bear responsibility in facilitating interactions between diverse populations in order to improve relationships and minimizing negative stereotypes?

Colleges need to incorporate diversity into their curriculum and co-curriculum to develop more culturally agile students who are better prepared to succeed in an increasingly multicultural world. Students must have opportunities to interact with different others inside and outside of the classroom in order for personal growth to take place. Furthermore, this learning experience must be an inclusive one, in which all students feel both a sense of belonging and uniqueness (Randel et al., 2018). Too often, places of higher education emphasize numerically diversifying its student body without carefully considering the overall campus environment and its social norms. Additionally, greater representation of minority voices is needed at the faculty and administration level in order to facilitate more nuanced and balanced conversations about difficult topics like race relations.

Randel, A. E., Galvin, B. M., Shore, L. M., Holcombe Ehrhart, K., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., & Kedharnath, U. (2018). Inclusive leadership: Realizing positive outcomes through belongingness and being valued for uniqueness. Human Resource Management Review, 28, 190-203.

What’s your advice on dealing with discomfort? Feeling it but stepping back from fight/flight instinct?

Discomfort is a natural response to potential threats in the environment, especially as they pertain racial bias. However, Monteith and her colleagues (2002) have shown that “cues for control” can be developed within interracial settings following prejudiced behavior. According to their model, if a biased mistake occurs from egalitarian-minded individuals, the behavioral inhibition system will pause their behavior, guilt will be experienced, and retrospective reflection will occur. This process allows for associative learning to take place, thereby reducing the likelihood that people will commit the same social error in the future. What is critical is for individuals to take the feedback they receive from their environment as constructive, rather than a threat, otherwise the fight or flight response is likely to take over and biases will be repeated.

Monteith, M. J., Ashburn-Nardo, L., Voils, C. I, & Czopp, A. M. (2002). Putting the brakes on prejudice: On the development and operation of cues for control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1029-1050.

What are some ways someone can actively work on implicit non-verbal behaviors?

As covered in the lecture, adopting the right intergroup goal can go a long way. Unfortunately, we often carry an egoistic concern about appearing prejudiced, rather than an empathic concern for the other person involved. The more we focus on not being biased toward others, the more likely we are to ironically fail and see some of the stereotype rebound effects that are common when trying to control our thoughts (Wegner, 1994). Instead, we need to focus on the task at hand and completing it with the best accuracy possible, since people are generally not very good at perceiving or correcting for their own bias. If we proactively consider treating others with respect and equality, we will be much more likely to communicate acceptance at a both verbal and non-verbal level.

Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101, 34-52.

Do you have any recommendations for books, articles, videos, movies, etc. that are helpful for recognizing and working against implicit bias?

Please see the list of suggested resources listed in these responses and below, or email me directly ( for additional readings on more specific topics of interest.

How strong is the effect of evolutionary bias (forming groups with alike people) vs learned bias/stereotypes? 

Forming groups is an evolutionary necessity that increases chances of survival and provides a fundamental need to belong. In fact, connecting to similar others is so important that it usually comes prior to forming prejudiced attitudes towards others. Much of the social psychological literature on race relations supports this idea, with studies showing that intergroup bias is often driven more by ingroup favoritism than outgroup hate (Brewer, 1999). We are therefore not necessarily wired to dislike different others but come to form negative associations about them through both active personal experiences and passive social learning. In this respect, it is critical to be mindful of the environments we are exposed to and question the intergroup narratives and outgroup depictions that are represented in our culture and media.

Brewer, M. B. (1999). The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love or outgroup hate? Journal of Social Issues, 55, 429-444.

How valuable do you feel amplifying the voices of minority group members can be in combating problems like systemic racism and implicit bias?

It is important to recognize that just like all majority members have different attitudes regarding race relations, members of stigmatized groups don’t all face the same challenges. It would be naive to assume that all minorities share the same perspective on social issues such as racism and implicit bias. Moreover, individuals with complex racial identities may find themselves confused about their role in the current climate of tension (Gaither, 2020). Yet, it is critical for minority voices to be heard if real progress is to be made. Too often, policies and decisions have been made on their behalf, but even those with the best intentions can fail from a lack of representation among those in power. Furthermore, because minority voices have been historically muted, allies must be willing to step up and stop being complicit in the spread of systemic bias by staying silent. 

Resources from Webinar

Online Resources
Project Implicit Website – Harvard University
Systemic Racism Video: – Act.TV

Articles on Implicit Bias
Amodio, D. M., & Mendoza, S. A. (2010). Implicit intergroup bias: Cognitive, affective, and motivational underpinnings. In B. Gawronski and B. K. Payne (Eds.) Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition (pp. 353-374). New York: Guilford.
PDF Version

Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5-18.
PDF Version

Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Pearson, A. R. (2016). Racism among the wellintentioned: Bias without awareness. In A. G. Miller’s (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
PDF Version

Payne, B. K., Vuletich, H. A., & Brown-Iannuzzi, J. L. (2019). Historical Roots of Implicit Bias in Slavery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201818816.
PDF Version